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Heavy metal music

Heavy metal (or simply metal) is a genre of rock music[1] that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United States and the United Kingdom. Similarly, 1970s punk culture spawned the visually distinctive goth and emo subcultures. Rock music has also embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major sub-cultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. records for singles "revolutionized the manner in which pop has been disseminated" and helped to move pop music to 'a record/radio/film star system'.[19] Another technological change was the widespread availability of television in the 1950s; with televised performances, "pop stars had to have a visual presence".[19] In the 1960s, the introduction of inexpensive, portable transistor radios meant that teenagers could listen to music outside of the home.[19] Multi-track recording (from the 1960s); and digital sampling (from the 1980s) have also been utilized as methods for the creation and elaboration of pop music.[7] By the early 1980s, the promotion of pop music had been greatly affected by the rise of Music Television channels like MTV, which "favoured those artists such as Michael Jackson and Madonna who had a strong visual appeal". and, in musical terms, it is essentially conservative". since the late 1950s, however, pop has had the special meaning of non-classical mus[ic], usually in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, ABBA, etc".[11] Grove Music Online also states that "... In the 1940s improved microphone design allowed a more intimate singing style[19] and ten or twenty years later inexpensive and more durable 45 r.p.m. As a genre, pop music is extremely eclectic, often borrowing elements from other styles including urban, dance, rock, Latin and country; nonetheless, there are core elements which define pop. Throughout its development, pop music has absorbed influences from most other genres of popular music. The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularization of rock and roll,[4] and was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists.[5] The sound of an electric guitar in rock music is typically supported by an electric bass guitar pioneered in jazz music in the same era,[6] and percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals.[7] This trio of instruments has often been complemented by the inclusion of others, particularly keyboards such as the piano, Hammond organ and synthesizers.[8] The basic rock instrumentation was adapted from the basic blues band instrumentation (prominent lead guitar, second chord instrument, bass, and drums).[5] A group of musicians performing rock music is termed a rock band or rock group and typically consists of between two and five members. The term "pop song" is first recorded as being used in 1926, in the sense of a piece of music "having popular appeal".[8] Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country, blues and hillbilly music. The terms "popular music" and "pop music" are often used interchangeably, although the former is a description of music which is popular (and can include any style). Since the term rock began to be used in preference to rock and roll from the late-1960s, it has often been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from which it is often distanced by an emphasis on musicianship, live performance and a focus on serious and progressive themes as part of an ideology of authenticity that is frequently combined with an awareness of the genre's history and development.[20] According to Simon Frith "rock was something more than pop, something more than rock and roll. New genres that emerged from this scene included progressive rock, which extended the artistic elements; glam rock, which highlighted showmanship and visual style; and the diverse and enduring subgenre of heavy metal, which emphasized volume, power, and speed. Like pop music, lyrics often stress romantic love but also address a wide variety of other themes that are frequently social or political in emphasis.

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Hip hop music

Hip hop music, also called hip-hop or rap music, is a music genre consisting of a stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech that is chanted. Rock musicians combined an emphasis on skill and technique with the romantic concept of art as artistic expression, original and sincere".[20] In the new millennium the term rock has sometimes been used as a blanket term including forms such as pop music, reggae music, soul music, and even hip hop, with which it has been influenced but often contrasted through much of its history.. Throughout its development, pop music has absorbed influences from most other genres of popular music. It is "not driven by any significant ambition except profit and commercial reward ... Pop music has been dominated by the American and (from the mid-1960s) British music industries, whose influence has made pop music something of an international monoculture, but most regions and countries have their own form of pop music, sometimes producing local versions of wider trends, and lending them local characteristics.[20] Some of these trends (for example Europop) have had a significant impact of the development of the genre. Such elements include generally short to medium-length songs, written in a basic format (often the verse-chorus structure), as well as the common employment of repeated choruses, melodic tunes, and hooks. Like pop music, lyrics often stress romantic love but also address a wide variety of other themes that are frequently social or political in emphasis. The dominance of rock by white, male musicians has been seen as one of the key factors shaping the themes explored in rock music. According to Grove Music Online, the term "pop music" "originated in Britain in the mid-1950s as a description for rock and roll and the new youth music styles that it influenced ...".[10] The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that while pop's "earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience ... The terms "popular music" and "pop music" are often used interchangeably, although the former is a description of music which is popular (and can include any style). The terms "popular music" and "pop music" are often used interchangeably, although the former is a description of music which is popular (and can include any style). New genres that emerged from this scene included progressive rock, which extended the artistic elements; glam rock, which highlighted showmanship and visual style; and the diverse and enduring subgenre of heavy metal, which emphasized volume, power, and speed. Throughout its development, pop music has absorbed influences from most other genres of popular music. The terms "popular music" and "pop music" are often used interchangeably, although the former is a description of music which is popular (and can include any style). The term "pop song" is first recorded as being used in 1926, in the sense of a piece of music "having popular appeal".[8] Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country, blues and hillbilly music.